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Complete structure of the polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis J The cell wall polysaccharides of certain oral streptococci such as Streptococcus sanguis strains 34 and J 22although immunologically distinct, act as receptors for the fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus T14V.

The authors report the complete covalent structure of the polysaccharide from S. The structure has been determined almost exclusively by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The stereochemistry of pyranosides was assigned from J H-H values determined from phase-sensitive COSY spectra, and acetamido sugars were assigned by correlation of the resonances of the amide 1 H with the sugar ring protons.

The positions of the glycosidic linkages were assigned by detection of three-bond 1 H- 13 C correlation across the glycosidic linkage in the HMBC spectra. The positions of the phosphodiester linkages were determined by splittings observed in the 13 C resonances due to 31 P coupling and also by 1 H-detected 31 P correlation spectroscopy. Creep damage development in welded X 20 and P The Martensitic steel X 20 CrMoV hereinafter called X 20 and the modified 9Cr1Mo steel hereinafter called P91 have been used for a number of years in high temperature applications since they posses superior creep strength compared to low alloyed steels.

Due to the simple fact that very few failures were observed, almost no knowledge as to the evolution of creep damage in welds were available despite long operation times exceeding well over It has been suggested that X 20 will develop creep damage in a different manner compared to low alloyed steel, i.

The research work presented in this report included systematic investigations of the first components of X 20which has developed creep during long-term operation. All of the investigated components showed creep damage evolution similar to low alloy steels. Microstructure of steel X 20 Cr 13 in the electron microscopical picture. The tempered microstructure of the steel X 20 Cr 13 is described by an electron microscopical overall picture and additional information is gained which would not be possible with the optical microscope.

The large transmission area permits one to quantitatively evaluate a microstructure component which due to its small size can only be measured with electron microscope pictures. Oxidation of X 20 in Water Vapour: The oxidation behaviour of X 20 in various mixtures of water, oxygen and hydrogen was investigated at temperatures between C and C time: The samples were characterised using reflected light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy Microscopical investigation of steamside oxide on X 20 CrMoV superheater tubes.

Light optical and scanning ele At all temperatures there is a double layered oxide, however, the inner: At the lower steam temperature range of A single phase with few precipitates was detected on the grain boundaries in the heat affected zone.

Material problems related to large scale firing of biomass. TP H and X 20 is often used as construction material in biomass-fired boilers. The corrosion rate of the alloys is affected by the metal temperature. The long term oxidation behaviour of TP H FG at ultra supercritical steam conditions was assessed by exposing the steel in 4 test superheater loops in a coal-fired power plant. The steel was exposed for,and h at metal temperatures between and deg. Double-layered oxides developed during steam oxidation of TP H FG both during field-testing and during laboratory exposures.


The morphology of the inner layer for the samples oxidised below and above approx. C looked very different in SEM field-testing. It is suggested that more Cr is incorporated into the oxide layer at higher temperature, gradually transforming the morphology of the inner oxide layer. The alloy beneath the oxide layer was depleted in Cr.

Microstructure-based modelling of the long-term monotonic and cyclic creep of the martensitic steel X 20 22 CrMoV 12 1. The current state of development of the composite model of deformation of the martensitic steel X 20 22 CrMoV 12 1 under conditions of creep is briefly described. The model is able to reproduce differences in monotonic creep strength of different melts with slightly different initial microstructures and to simulate cyclic creep with alternating phases of tension and compression.

This represents the first record of X1 X 20 chromosomal sex system in Gryllidae. Steam oxidation of X 20 CrMoV Comparison of laboratory exposures and in situ exposure in power plants. These tubes have been exposed for various durations up to h This paper collates the data, compares oxide morphologies and assesses to what extent parabolic kinetics can be used to describe the oxidation rate.

Creep damage in welds of X 20 CrMoV 12 1 steel. Part 2 – Studies of long term service exposed material and damage data base and calculation of damage distribution and damage resistance; Krypskador i svetsar av X 20 CrMoV 12 1 staal. Etapp 2 – Studier av lingtidspiverkat material och skadedatabas samt berakning av skadefordelning och skadetilighet. The present project has been consisted of the following pieces of work on welds of X 20 CrMoV 12 1: Analysis of, by use of replica testing, creep damage development in welds in 11 Danish high pressure steam lines with operation up toh.

Metallographic investigations of four welds from a retired live steam line with approximately h in operation. Analysis of the time security of the material, i.

Finite element simulations of the creep behaviour of X 20 welds where effects of HAZ creep properties, system stresses and degree of multiaxiality in the rupture criterion are studied.

In addition a literature study on publications of creep life time in X 20 steel was performed in a first, already reported part of the ricbard.

The results of the comprehensive replica testing and the metallographic investigations show clear-cut that welds of this material have an excellently long creep life that indeed will reachh. The creep damage at that time is in general very limited. The typical creep life for welds of X 20 can be evaluated to at leasth. The reason for that it is skmonetti possible to evaluate an even longer creep life is the fact that creep testing and finite element simulations show that creep elongation and creep damage will accelerate considerably later in the creep life than some low alloy steels.

In the worst case this acceleration could start already just afterh. It is also demonstrated that welds of the X 20 steel can stand system stresses much better than low alloy steels. Recommendations for how and when inspections and testing of welds of the current material should be performed have been issued. They have been adapted aabaixo the findings in the project.

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The recommendations can, as long as severe damage is absent, allow for longer inspection intervals. The need for a more efficient coal power plant generation e.

To reach the necessary service life of high temperature parts protective coatings may be a sufficient technical solution. After appropriate heat treatments transition alumina coatings q about nm thick were obtained. In case deprresso the uncoated sample a rough oxide layer formed on the surface and a remarkable weight gain 2.


Diffusion of alloying elements into the coating was observed. No indication of spallation of the coating occurred. Modification of the microstructure of a weld of the same rkchard as X 20 Simonettk 12 1 by means of purely thermal aging and by aging under mechanical stress at C.

The experiments were to contribute deeper insight into the mechanisms and effects induced by long-term, purely thermal aging and by aging over the same period under mechanical stress in a weld of the same composition as X 20 CrMoV 12 1, which are known to cause microstructural changes resulting in modified toughness of the weld.

Preliminary results of ground water, stream sediment, and stream water reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series NTMS Harrisburg 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle are presented. Stream sediment richardd stream water samples were collected from small streams at sites for a nominal density of one site per 18 square kilometers in rural areas.

Ground water samples were collected at sites for a nominal density of one site per 15 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis NAA results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water and surface water.

Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and rifhard measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of rcihard area are included. Key data are presented in page-sized hard copy. Supplementary data are on microfiche. Key data from ground water sites Appendix A include 1 water chemistry measurements pH, conductivity, and alkalinity2 well depth, 3 elemental analyses U, Br, Cl, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and Vand 4 graphical presentation richxrd of Al and Dy analyses.

Key data from stream water sites Appendix C include 1 water chemistry measurements pH, conductivity, and alkalinity and 2 elemental analyses. Surface samples sediment were collected from sites.

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The target sampling density was one site per 16 square kilometers six square miles. Ground water samples were collected at 84 sites.

Neutron activation analysis NAA results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in depfesso water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. Data from ground water sites on microfiche in pocket include 1 water chemistry measurements pH, conductivity, and alkalinity2 physical measurements where applicable water temperature, well description, and scintillometer readingand 3 elemental analyses U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, He, Mg, Mn, Na, and V.

Sample site descriptors stream characteristics, vegetation, etc. Sampling in the northern half of the quadrangle was restricted to areas outside the Hopi Indian Reservation. Surface sediment samples were collected at sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 45 sites in the southwestern part of the quadrangle. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements rixhard ground water.

Data from ground water sites include: Data from sediment sites include: Sample site descriptors are also tabulated. Uranium concentrations in sediments of the Flagstaff quadrangle are relatively low, with a maximum value of 11 ppM. The mean of the logs of uranium values in sediments is 0. Highest values occur in areas underlain by Quaternary volcanics and alluvium in the south-western part of the quadrangle, and in lacustrine deposits in the Hopi Buttes eimonetti on the eastern edge of the quadrangle.

Both of these areas have known uranium occurrences.