BIOGRAFI IBNU KHALDUN PDF

Mohammad Abdullah Enan is the author of Biografi Ibnu Khaldun ( avg rating, 79 ratings, 9 reviews, published ) and Decisive Moments in the Histor . BIOGRAFI ABDUL RAHMAN BIN MUHAMMAD BIN KHALDUN (IBN KHALDUN) SERTA KARYA AGUNG BELIAU AL-MUQADDIMAH. ULISAN ini meneliti secara deskriptif kronologi biografi Ibnu Khaldun. Bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan tokoh tersohor ini supaya idea-idea penting beliau.

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He also wrote a definitive history of Muslim North Africa. The family subsequently moved to Sevilla Sevilleplayed an important part in the civil wars of the 9th century, and was long reckoned among the three leading houses of that city.

There the refugees from Spain were of a much higher level of socio-economic status than the local North Africans, and the family was soon called to occupy the leading administrative posts in Tunis. He was outstanding in his knowledge of Arabic and had an understanding of poetry in its different forms and I can well remember how the men of letters sought his opinion in matters of dispute khalrun submitted their works to him.

Inhowever, the Black Death struck Tunis and took away both his father and his mother. By then he was married. After two years of service, however, he was suspected of participation in a rebellion and was imprisoned. He gladly accepted the village that the sultan of Granada bestowed on him, however, and, feeling once more secure, brought over his family, whom he had left in safety in Constantine. His original intention, which he subsequently achieved, was to write a universal history of the Arabs and Berbers, but before doing so he judged it necessary to discuss historical methodwith the aim of providing the criteria necessary for distinguishing historical truth from error.

As a theorist on history he had no equal in any age or bilgrafi until Vico appeared, more than three hundred years later.

PlatoAristotle and Augustine were not his peers. The work is studded with brilliant observations on historiographyeconomicspolitics, and education. Muhsin Mahdi, a contemporary Iraqi-American scholar, has shown how much his approach and fundamental concepts owe to classical Islamic theology and philosophy, especially Averroism.

Ibn Khaldūn

And, of course, he drew liberally on the historical information accumulated by his predecessors and was doubtless influenced by their judgments.

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But nothing in these sources or, indeed, in any known Greek or Latin author can explain his deep insight into social phenomena, his firm grasp of the links binding the innumerable and apparently unrelated events that constitute the process of historical and social change. One last point should be made regarding his basic philosophy of history.

But, in brief descriptions of his own age, which have not received as much attention as they deserve, he showed that he could both visualize the existence of sharp turning points in history and recognize that he was witnessing one of them: Such a task, however, required frequent reference to other books and archives; this, together perhaps with nostalgia for the more active world of politics, drew him back to city life.

But once more he aroused both the jealousy of a prominent scholar and the suspicion of the ruler, and inat age 50, he received permission to sail to Egyptostensibly for the purpose of performing the pilgrimage to Mecca. Its impact on him was profound: He must have struck the tolerant and easygoing Egyptians as somewhat dour and puritanical, and his own opinion is recorded by one of his students: But he was given another professorship—he pointed out that endowed chairs were plentiful in Cairo—and spent his time teaching, writing, and revising his Muqaddimah.

Some years later he went to Damascus and the holy cities of Palestine, thus further widening his knowledge of the eastern Arab world. Otherwise, one gets the impression of a ripe, wise, and respected scholar, surrounded by admirers, sought out by visitors, peacefully enjoying the calm pleasures of old age.

He had every reason to expect this state of affairs to continue, but fate had reserved for him one more encounter, the most dramatic of all. The latter was thereupon lowered over the city wall by ropes and spent some seven weeks in the enemy camp, of which he has given a detailed description in his autobiography.

Ibnu Khaldun

Timur treated him with respect, and the historian used all his accumulated worldly wisdom and courtly flattery to charm the ferocious world conqueror. After an exchange of gifts with Timur, he headed southward but was robbed and stripped khaldu a band of Bedouin and only with difficulty made his way to the coast. The rest of his journey to Cairo was uneventful, as indeed were the remaining years of his life.

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Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Political fragmentation and the triumph of Islamic culture c. His geographical works range from the listing of postal routes to detailed descriptions of countries and, khalun a later stage, cities. Continued spread of Islamic influence views on historical cycles In time: The cyclic view in various cultures population growth In population: Population biofrafi in antiquity.

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