Cotula cinerea Del. belongs to the family Asteraceae. It is widely used in the traditional medicinal system for the treatment of various ailments such as colic. Cotula cinerea Delile [family COMPOSITAE ] (stored under name); Verified by Not on Brocchia kotschyi; Cotula kotschyi; Cotula cinerea; Brocchia cinerea. Abstract: The phytochemical investigation of Cotula cinerea Del. afforded eighteen Keywords: Cotula cinerea Del.; Asteraceae; Flavonoids; Germacranolide.
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To receive news and publication updates for BioMed Research International, enter your email address in the box below. Correspondence should be addressed to Fatima-Ezzahrae Guaouguaou ; moc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The objective of this work was to investigate the cytotoxicological effect of the extracts hexane, ethyl acetate, and n -butanol of Cotula cinerea and Salvia verbenaca in addition to the essential oil of Cotula cinerea. These plants cinwrea widely used in the Moroccan cindrea folk medicine. The obtained cotyla showed that the cytotoxicity differed according to the used extract with an efficient effect of Cotula cinerea extracts compared to Salvia verbenaca.
Flavonoids from Cotula cinerea Del
A potent cytotoxicity was thus observed for the Cotula cinerea hexane extract which inhibited the growth of RD cell line at the lowest IC 50 value This was followed by the ethyl acetate extract and the essential oil with moderate effects against RD cell line and showed IC 50 values of On the other hand, different results were obtained and Cotula cinerea essential oil was the most cytotoxic with the lowest IC 50 value In the same conditions, higher concentrations were needed in the case of Salvia verbenaca extracts.
The results of this study showed thus that Cotula cinerea essential oil and hexane extract showed significant cytotoxic effects against RD and Vero cell lines, respectively, and could be considered as novel source of antitumor agents. This study is expected to be beneficial for clinical and traditional applications for Cotula cinerea as a remedy against cancer and opens new perspectives for further investigations on other types of cancer cell lines.
Cancer is a complex disease caused by several factors such as genetic deregulation, environmental influencing agents, and cinfrea modification factors [ 12 ]. According to the World Health Organization, incidence and mortality due to cancer are widely increasing in the world [ 3 ]. Despite the appreciable advancements and progress made in cancer treatment, it continues to constitute a serious global health problem, cnerea with the appearance of multidrug resistance cells.
Cotula – Wikipedia
To date various bioactive compounds have been tried against cancer. However, and despite all the finerea made, the cancer treatment remains a challenging task for both the patients and the medical staff.
The current widely used cancer treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy, systemic therapy, and chemotherapy are very expensive and cause several side and adverse effects [ 4 ].
Prolonged cancer treatment is generally costly to patients and complicates patient follow-up in hospital.
Flavonoids from Cotula cinerea Del – Semantic Scholar
It is thus important and imperative to find more effective drugs with a shorter application period. Exploring cotkla sources of new antitumor agents with specific targets is thus imperative and of great and crucial importance.
Traditional forms of medicine, especially the herbal products deployed for centuries in many parts of the world, could be good alternative for scientific investigation due to their attributes against tumor cell lines. Indeed, plants are rich sources of new compounds from which some secondary metabolites have been shown to possess anticancer properties [ 5 — 7 ]. Furthermore, natural products could be as efficient as synthetic ones with no or less toxicity and are less expensive than synthetic drugs.
Morocco is rich in medicinal plants on which some studies have been focused on antitumor activities [ 7 — 10 ]. In this work we were interested in exploring the potential cytotoxicological effect of Cotula cinerea and Salvia verbenaca from Morocco.
Cotula cinerea which is of the Asteraceae family is a xerophytic plant widely distributed in sandy and desert grounds [ 11 ]. Salvia verbenaca is a Mediterranean plant currently belonging to the Lamiaceae family. The plant is widely distributed in Morocco and is widely used in Moroccan traditional folk medicine as a cholagogue, antiseptic, diuretic, and astringent [ 12 ].
However, and despite the widespread use of these plants in Moroccan traditional folk medicine, to the best of our knowledge, no information has been previously reported on the anticancer activity of Moroccan Cotula cinerea and Salvia verbenaca. This work was therefore initiated in order to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative effect of Cotula cinerea and Salvia verbenaca extracts and essential oil against tumor RD and Vero cell lines.
Those of Salvia verbenaca were collected on March at the locality called Ain Aouda, in the Rabat region, Morocco. Voucher specimens of both plants were deposited in the herbarium of the Botany Department of this institution.
The collected aerial parts were left under shade at room temperature until complete drying. The maceration process was repeated twice during 24 h each in order to achieve an exhaustive extraction. After filtration and evaporation of corula, the obtained aqueous solution was successively fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, and n -butanol. Then, solvents of the different obtained extracts were evaporated and the dried residues were used to explore their cytotoxic effect.
The hexane, ethyl acetate, and n -butanol extraction yields were, respectively, 1. The essential oil of Cotula cinerea cinreea parts was extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The extraction was achieved during six hours and the obtained oil yield 0. The two tumor tested cell lines used in this study were RD Human Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma cancerous cell lines: These two species were obtained from the National Institute of Health, Rabat, Morocco, cotulz were cultivated as previously described by Aneb et al.
Before evaluating the antiproliferative activity, votula cellular density of each species was determined using light microscopy. The enumeration of cells was made using Malassez cell count. After 24 h incubation, cells were then treated with the essential oil of Cotula cinerea or its extracts hexane, ethyl acetate, and n -butanol in addition to those of Salvia verbenaca.
The evaluation of cell viability has been achieved through the use of MTT 3- 4,5-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The test is based on the biotransformation of MTT into formazan crystals by mitochondrial dehydrogenases of living cells.
The absorbance of the formazan will then be determined by spectrophotometry at nm. The obtained values are correlated with the metabolized intracellular MTT concentrations and cotulz therefore proportional to cotulaa number of living cells. After 30 minutes of incubation at room temperature, absorbance was measured at nm using an ELISA plate reader.
Cell ciberea was evaluated by determination of the percentage of cytotoxicity using the formula given below. The concentrations that inhibit half of the cell population IC 50 were obtained by modeling the percentage of cytotoxicity versus concentration of extracts.
In an ongoing program aimed at the exploration of the phytochemical compounds and the biological activities of medicinal plants of Morocco, ciberea were interested, in this work, in the cytotoxic effect of Cotula cinerea and Salvia verbenaca. The three extracts hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol of cinereea plant in addition to the essential oil of Cotula cinerea have then been assayed for their cytotoxic activity against RD and Vero cell lines using MTT cktula. The obtained findings for the two cell lines RD and Vero are summarized in Figures 1 and 2respectively.
The results are expressed as percentage of cytotoxicity versus the concentrations of the essential oil or extracts of both plants. For both lines, an increase of the cytotoxicity with the concentration of the essential oil or the cinfrea extracts was observed indicating a dose dependent effect. An examination of the obtained results showed that the cytotoxic effects of the investigated plants extracts were different according to the tested cell line with an efficient activity of Cotula cinerea dinerea to Salvia verbenaca.
Comparison of the obtained results for both cell lines showed that Cotula cinerea cindrea activity was higher than its corresponding Salvia verbenaca one. This was observed for both cell lines. In the case of the RD cell line, the Cotula cinerea hexane extract showed the higher cytotoxic effect followed by the ethyl acetate, the essential oil, and the n -butanol extract. In the same conditions and for the Vero cell line, the best cytotoxic effect was observed with the essential oil followed by the hexane, the ethyl acetate, and the n -butanol extracts.
In the case the RD cell line, the lowest IC 50 value The essential oil and the ethyl acetate extract showed moderate cytotoxic effects In the case of the Vero tumor cell line, Table 1 reveals cotulq Cotula cinerea essential oil showed the highest cytotoxic capacity with the lowest IC 50 value Higher concentrations were needed in the case of Salvia verbenaca extracts which showed the weakest cytotoxic effects.
The noticed differences in the observed cytotoxicity of the investigated mixtures could obviously be due to the phytochemical composition of each extract. The exact mechanism through which the explored extracts act on each tumor cell line is obviously difficult to highlight.
Indeed, the explored extracts are complex mixtures containing several phytochemical compounds which could have different biological activities. In addition, these mixtures could act in a synergic or in an antagonism manner. A preliminary phytochemical screening of the Cotula cinerea and Salvia verbenaca extracts showed the presence of polyphenols such as flavonoids and other secondary metabolites.
These compounds could explain the cytotoxic effect of this extract on RD tumor cell line. Indeed, the antitumor properties of phenolic compounds and flavonoids against several cell lines representing numerous human cell lines have been previously reported [ 6 ]. The exact mechanisms through which such compounds act in their cytotoxicity effect are not well known, but some tentative investigations suggested that these compounds could interrupt the life cycle cell, inducing the apoptosis pathways and inactivating the telomerase [ 6 ].
The antiproliferative activity of Cotula cinerea essential oil against the Vero tumor cell line could be due to presence of cytotoxic molecules in the oil. Essential oils are complex molecules containing various and several terpenoids compounds belonging mainly to monoterpene and sesquiterpene chemical groups and presenting different functional groups such as alcohols, phenols, ketone, etc.
These compounds could act individually or in a synergic manner. The activity of an essential oil is generally attributed and influenced by the major compounds.
However, the minor compounds could also be of crucial importance; all the phytochemicals could synergistically act and enhance the observed activity [ 14 ].
Moreover, a molecule could have an effect on one type of tumor and not on others. The action and mechanism of Cotula cinerea essential oil is very complex involving several ccinerea pathways as previously reported [ 5 ]. Due to its complex phytochemical composition, it is difficult to define a unique mechanism of its action on the used cell cineea. Nevertheless, the Cotula cinerea essential oil can act through various mechanisms.
The tentative global mechanism gathered probably all these actions which are thus supposed to provide the observed cytotoxic effect. Further studies are obviously needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of Cotula dotula in cytotoxic activity. Our results indicated that Cotula cinerea essential oil and hexane extract showed significant and encouraging cytotoxic effects against RD and Vero cell lines, respectively, and could then be considered as source cotlua novel antitumor agents.
The obtained results raise then the possibility of a potential use of Cotula cinerea as a source of potent anticancer products. This study is expected thus to be beneficial for clinical and traditional applications for Cotula cinerea as a remedy against cancer and opens new perspectives for further exploration on other types of cancer cell lines.
Further investigations regarding the identification of bio-actives molecules responsible for these effects are needed. Examination of the cinegea activity of the Cotula cinerea individual compounds would give crucial information regarding the exact mechanism of this plant in antitumor activity. Indexed in Cunerea Citation Index Expanded. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract The objective of this work was to investigate the cytotoxicological effect of the extracts hexane, ethyl acetate, and n -butanol of Cotula cinerea and Salvia verbenaca in addition to the essential oil of Cotula cinerea.
Introduction Cancer is a complex disease caused by several factors such as genetic deregulation, environmental influencing agents, and epigenetic modification factors [ 12 cotila. Material and Methods 2. Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity Before evaluating the antiproliferative activity, the cellular density of each species was determined using light microscopy.
Results and Discussion In an ongoing program aimed at the exploration of the phytochemical compounds and the biological activities of medicinal plants of Morocco, we were interested, in this work, in the cytotoxic effect of Cotula ctoula and Salvia verbenaca. Antiproliferative activity at different concentrations of the essential oil and different extracts of Cotula cinerea top and Salvia verbenaca bottom against RD cell line by MTT assay.