Gerhard Gentzen Gerhard Karl Erich Gentzen (November 24, – August 4, ) was a German mathematician and logician. He made major contributions. Logic’s Lost Genius: The Life of Gerhard Gentzen Eckart Menzler-Trott Publication Year: ISBN ISBN History of. Gentzen, Gerhard(b. Creifswald, Germany, 24 November ; d. Prague, Czechoslovakia, 4 August )logic, foundations of mathematics. Source for.

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He made major contributions to the foundations of mathematicsproof theoryespecially on natural deduction and sequent calculus. He died in after the Second World Warbecause he was deprived of food after being arrested in Prague.

Bernays was fired as “non- Aryan ” in April and therefore Hermann Weyl formally acted as his supervisor. Gentzen joined the Sturmabteilung in November although he was by no means compelled to do so. Inhe corresponded with Abraham Fraenkel in Jerusalem and was implicated by the Nazi teachers’ union as one who “keeps contacts to the Chosen People. Gentzen joined the Nazi Geentzen in In April Gerhqrd swore the oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler as part of his academic appointment.

Gentzen was arrested during the citizens uprising against the occupying German forces on May 5, He, along with the rest of the staff of the German University in Prague was subsequently handed over to Russian forces.

Gentzen’s main work was on the foundations of mathematicsin proof theoryspecifically natural deduction and the sequent calculus. His cut-elimination theorem is the cornerstone of proof-theoretic semanticsand some philosophical remarks in his “Investigations into Logical Deduction”, together with Ludwig Wittgenstein ‘s later work, constitute the starting point for inferential role semantics.

One of Gentzen’s papers had a second publication in the ideological Deutsche Mathematik that was founded by Ludwig Bieberbach who promoted “Aryan” mathematics. Gentzen proved the consistency of the Peano axioms in a paper published in In his Habilitationsschriftfinished inhe determined the proof-theoretical strength of Peano arithmetic. This was done by a direct proof of the unprovability of the principle of transfinite induction, used in his proof of consistency, within Peano arithmetic.

Gentzen’s proof was published in and marked the beginning of ordinal proof theory. He made major contributions to the foundations of mathematics, proof theory, especially on natural deduction and sequent calculus.

Gerhard Gentzen biography

He died in after the Second World War, because he was deprived of food after being arrested in Prague. Bernays was fired as “non-Aryan” in April and therefore Hermann Weyl formally acted as his supervisor. Sequent calculus is, in essence, a style of formal logical argumentation where every line of a proof is a conditional tautology called a sequent by Gerhard Gentzen instead of an unconditional tautology. Each conditional tautology is inferred from other conditional tautologies on earlier lines in a formal argument according gefhard rules and procedures of inference, giving a better approximation to the style of natural deduction used by mathematicians than David Hilbert’s earlier style of formal logic where every line was an unconditional tautology.

There may be more subtle distinctions to be made; for example, there may be non-logical axioms upon which all propositions are implicitly gerhagd.

Then sequents signify conditional theorems in a first-order language rather than conditional tautologies. Sequent calculus is one of several extant styles of proof calculus for gentzrn line-by-line logical arguments.

Every line is an unconditional tautology or theorem. Gentzen’s consistency proof is a result of proof theory in mathematical logic, published by Gerhard Gentzen in It shows that the Peano axioms of first-order arithmetic do not contain a contradiction i.

Gentzen argued that it avoids the questionable modes of inference contained in Peano arithmetic and that its consistency is therefore less controversial. Gentzen’s theorem Gentzen’s theorem is concerned with first-order arithmetic: This is a “first-order” theory: The cut-elimination theorem or Gentzen’s Hauptsatz is the central result establishing the significance of the sequent calculus.

It was originally proved by Gerhard Gentzen in his landmark paper “Investigations in Logical Deduction” for the systems LJ and LK formalising intuitionistic and classical logic respectively. The cut-elimination theorem states that any judgement that possesses a proof in the sequent calculus making use of the cut rule also possesses a cut-free proof, that is, a proof that does not make use of the cut rule.


In mathematics, Hilbert’s second problem was posed by David Hilbert in as one of his 23 problems. It asks for a proof that the arithmetic is consistent — free of any internal contradictions.

Hilbert stated that the axioms he considered for arithmetic were the ones given in Hilbertwhich include a second order completeness axiom.

Hilbert’s problem and its interpretation In one English translation, Hilbert asks: But above all I wish to designate the following as the most important among the numerous questions which can be asked with r Gerhard is a name of Germanic origin and may refer to: Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.

It bears close connections to metamathematics, the foundations of getnzen, and theoretical computer science. Mathematical logic is often divided into the fields of set theory, model theory, recursion theory, and proof gentzrn. These areas share basic results on logic, gehard first-order logic, and definability. In computer science particularly in the ACM Classification mathematical logic encompasses additional topics not detailed genzten this article; see Logic in computer science for those.

Since its inception, mathematical logic has both contributed to, and has been motivated by, the study of foundations of mathematics. This study began in the late 19th century with the development of axiomatic frameworks for geometry, arithmetic, and analysis Proof theory is a major branch[1] of mathematical logic that geerhard proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. Proofs are typically presented as inductively-defined data structures such as fentzen lists, boxed lists, or trees, which are constructed according to the axioms and rules of inference of the logical system.

As such, proof theory is syntactic in nature, in contrast to model theory, which is semantic in nature. Some of the major areas of proof theory include structural proof theory, ordinal analysis, provability logic, reverse mathematics, proof mining, automated theorem proving, and proof complexity. Much research also focuses on applications in computer gnetzen, linguistics, and philosophy. History Although the formalisation of logic genfzen much advanced by the work of such figures as Gottlob Frege, Giuseppe Peano, Bertrand Russell, and Richard Dedekind, the story of modern proof theory is often seen as being established by David Hilbert, who ini These include the disjunction property DPthe existence property EPand three additional properties: In proof theory, ordinal analysis assigns ordinals often large countable ordinals to mathematical theories as a measure of their strength.

Definition Ordinal analysis concerns true, effective recursive theories that can interpret a sufficient portion of arithmetic to make statements about ordinal notations.

In proof theory, a discipline within mathematical logic, double-negation translation, sometimes called negative translation, is a general approach for embedding classical logic into intuitionistic logic, typically by translating formulas to formulas which are classically equivalent but intuitionistically inequivalent.

Propositional logic The easiest double-negation translation to describe comes from Glivenko’s theorem, proved by Valery Glivenko in Glivenko’s theorem implies the more general statement: In logic and proof theory, natural deduction is a kind of proof calculus in which geehard reasoning is expressed by inference rules closely related to the “natural” way of genzen. This contrasts with Hilbert-style systems, which instead use axioms gebtzen much as possible to express the logical laws of deductive reasoning.

Motivation Natural deduction grew out of a context of dissatisfaction with the axiomatizations of deductive reasoning common to the systems of Hilbert, Genhzen, and Russell see, e. Such axiomatizations were most famously used by Russell and Whitehead in their mathematical treatise Principia Mathematica. In logic, the semantics of logic is the study of the semantics, or interpretations, of formal and idealizations gemtzen natural languages usually trying to capture the pre-theoretic notion of entailment.

Overview The truth conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. The semantics of logic refers to the approaches that logicians have gehard to understand and determine that part of meaning in which they are interested; the logician traditionally is not interested in the sentence as uttered but in the proposition, an idealised sentence suitable for logical manipulation.

Until the advent of modern logic, Aristotle’s Organon, especially De Interpretatione, provided the basis for understanding the significance of logic.


Gentzen, Gerhard

The introduction of quantification, needed to solve the problem of multiple generality, rendered impossible the kind of subject-predica In mathematics, Hilbert’s program, formulated by German mathematician David Hilbert in the early part of the 20th century, was a proposed solution to the foundational crisis of mathematics, when early attempts to clarify the foundations of mathematics were found to suffer from paradoxes and inconsistencies.

As a solution, Hilbert proposed to ground all existing theories to a finite, complete set of axioms, and provide a proof that these axioms were consistent. Hilbert proposed that the consistency of more complicated systems, such as real analysis, could be proven in terms of simpler systems. Ultimately, the consistency of all of mathematics could be reduced to basic arithmetic. Proof-theoretic semantics is an approach to the semantics of logic that attempts to locate the meaning of propositions and logical connectives not in terms of interpretations, as in Tarskian approaches to semantics, but in the role that the proposition or logical connective plays within the system of inference.

Gerhard Gentzen is the founder of proof-theoretic semantics, providing the formal basis for it in his account of cut-elimination for the sequent calculus, and some provocative philosophical remarks about locating the meaning of logical connectives in their introduction rules within natural deduction.

The history of proof-theoretic semantics since then has been devoted to exploring the consequences of these ideas. Dag Prawitz extended Gentzen’s notion of analytic proof to natural deduction, and suggested that the value of a proof in natural deduction may be understood as its normal form.

This idea lies at the basis of the Curry—Howard isomorphism, and of intuitionistic type theory. In mathematical logic, a sequent is a very general kind of conditional assertion.

A sequent is understood to mean that if all of the antecedent conditions are true, then at least one of the consequent formulas is true. This style of conditional assertion is almost always associated with the conceptual framework of sequent calculus. Introduction The form and semantics of sequents Sequents are best understood in the context of the following three kinds of logical judgments: Any number of antecedent formulas.

The following table lists many specialized symbols commonly used in mathematics, ordered by their introduction date. Logische Untersuchungen can refer to: Logical harmony, a name coined by Michael Dummett, is a supposed constraint on the rules of inference that can be used in a given logical system. Overview The logician Gerhard Gentzen proposed that the meanings of logical connectives could be given by the rules for introducing them into discourse.

For example, if one believes that the sky is blue and one also believes that grass is green, then one can introduce the connective and as follows: The sky is blue AND grass is green. Gentzen’s idea was that having rules like this is what gives meaning to one’s words, or at least to certain words. The idea has also been associated with Wittgenstein’s dictum that in many cases we can say, meaning is use. Most contemporary logicians prefer to think that the introduction rules and the elimination rules for an expression are equally important.

In this case, and is characterized by the following rules: Logic from the Ancient Greek: A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion. In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words such as therefore, hence, ergo, and so on. Historically, logic has been studied in philosophy since ancient times and mathematics since the midth cen In predicate logic universal instantiation[1][2][3] UI; also called universal specification or universal elimination, and sometimes confused with dictum de omni is a valid rule of inference from a truth about each member of a class of individuals to the truth about a particular individual of that class.

It is generally given as a quantification rule for the universal quantifier but it can also be encoded in an axiom. It is one of the basic principles used in quantification theory.

Fido is a dog.