I found a lot of them in Das Heer bis , but an index for this document ( the Himmeroder Denkschrift) teases that there is a lot greater. Hans-Jiirgen Rautenberg and Norbert Wiggershaus, “Die ‘Himmeroder Denkschrift’ vom Oktober ,” MGM, 1/, pp. BA-MA, BW9/ On the Himmeroder Denkschrift, see Roland G. Foerster, “Innenpolitische Aspekte der Sicherheit Westdeutschlands (–o),” in Anfänge westdeutscher.
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The Himmerod memorandum German: Himmeroder Denkschrift was a page document produced following a secret meeting of former Wehrmacht high-ranking officers invited by Chancellor Konrad Adenauer to the Himmerod Abbey to discuss West Germany ‘s Wiederbewaffnung rearmament. The resulting document laid foundation for the establishment of the new army Bundeswehr of the Federal Republic. The memorandum, along with the public declaration of Wehrmacht’s “honor” by the Allied himemroder commanders and West Germany’s politicians, contributed to the creation of the myth of the ” clean Wehrmacht “.
The Potsdam Conference held by the Soviet Union, United Kingdom and United States from 17 Denkschridt to 2 August largely determined the occupation policies that the defeated country was to face. These included demilitarizationdenazification denkschrrift, democratization and decentralization. The Allies’ often crude and ineffective implementation caused the local population to dismiss the process as “noxious mixture of moralism and ‘victors’ justice'”.
For those in the Western zones of occupation, the advent of the Cold War undermined the demilitarization process by seemingly justifying the dekschrift part of Hitler’s foreign policies — the “fight against Denkschroft bolshevism”.
From 5 to 9 Octobera group of former senior officers, at the behest of Chancellor Konrad Adenauermet in secret at the Himmerod Abbey hence the memorandum’s name to discuss West Germany’s rearmament.
The participants were divided in several subcommittees that focused on the political, ethical, operational and logistical aspects of the denkschrkft armed forces. The resulting memorandum included a summary of denkschrft discussions at the conference and bore the name “Memorandum on the Formation of a German Contingent for the Defense of Western Europe within the framework of an International Fighting Force”.
It was intended as both a planning document and as a basis of negotiations with the Western Allies. The participants of the conference were convinced that no future German army would be possible without the historical rehabilitation of the Wehrmacht. The memorandum therefore included these key demands:. Adenauer accepted these propositions and in turn advised the representatives of the three Western powers that German armed forces would not be possible as long as German soldiers remained in custody.
To accommodate the West German government, the Allies commuted denkschrkft number of war crimes sentences. Eisenhower followed in Januaryattesting to the Wehrmacht’s “honor”.
Prior to signing the declaration and discussing it with the press, Eisenhower met with former Wehrmacht generals Adolf Heusinger and Hans Speidelboth participants in the Himmerod conference, and was impressed by them. The declaration read in part: I have come to know that there was a real difference between the German soldier and Hitler and his criminal group. For my part, I do not believe that the German soldier as such has lost his honor.
In the same yearsome former career officers of the Wehrmacht were granted war pensions under Article of the Common Law. Chancellor Adenauer made a similar statement in a Bundestag debate on Article of the Common Law, West Germany’s provisional constitution. He stated that the German soldier fought honorably, as long as he “had not been guilty of any offense”.
These declarations laid the foundation of the myth of the ” clean Wehrmacht ” that reshaped the West’s perception of the German war effort, leading to Wehrmacht’s eventual rehabilitation in the eyes of the public and the Allied authorities.
Wehrmacht — The Wehrmacht was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from to In the early part of World War II, Hitlers generals employed the Wehrmacht through innovative combined arms tactics to devastating effect in what was called a Blitzkrieg, the Wehrmachts new military structure, unique combat techniques, newly developed weapons, and unprecedented speed and brutality crushed their opponents.
Closely cooperating with the SS, the German armed forces committed war crimes and atrocities. The German term Wehrmacht generically describes any nations armed forces, for example, the Frankfurt Constitution of designated all German military forces as the German Wehrmacht, consisting of the Seemacht and the Landmacht.
Inthe term Wehrmacht also appears in Article 47 of the Weimar Constitution, establishing that, fromGermanys national defense force was known as the Reichswehr, a name that was dropped in favor of Wehrmacht on 21 May The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were announced in May, the army was limited to one hundred thousand men with an additional fifteen thousand in the navy.
The fleet was to consist of at most six battleships, six cruisers, submarines, tanks and heavy artillery were forbidden and the air-force was dissolved. A new post-war military, the Reichswehr, was established on 23 MarchGeneral conscription was abolished under another mandate of the Versailles treaty.
The Reichswehr was limited tomen, and thus the armed forces, under the leadership of Hans von Seeckt, though Seeckt retired inthe army that went to war in was largely his creation. Germany was forbidden to have an air-force by the Versailles treaty, nonetheless and these officers saw the role of an air-force as winning air-superiority, tactical and strategic bombing and providing ground support.
That the Luftwaffe did not develop a strategic bombing force in the s was not due to a lack of interest, but because of economic limitations. ByGermany had begun covertly circumventing the conditions of the Versailles Treaty, a secret collaboration with the Soviet Union began after the treaty of Rapallo. Major-General Otto Hasse traveled to Moscow in to further negotiate the terms, Germany helped the Soviet Union with industrialization and Soviet officers were to be trained in Germany.
He led his country from the ruins of World War II to a productive and prosperous nation that forged close relations with France, the United Kingdom, during his years in power West Germany achieved democracy, stability, international respect and economic prosperity. He was the first leader of the Christian Democratic Union, a Christian Democratic party that under his leadership became one of the most influential parties in the country, Adenauer, the Chancellor till age 87 was dubbed Der Alte.
British historian Roy Jenkins says he was the oldest statesman ever to function in elected office and he belied his age by his intense work habits and his uncanny political instinct. He displayed a strong dedication to a vision of market-based liberal democracy.
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A shrewd politician, Adenauer was deeply committed to a Western-oriented foreign policy and he worked to restore the West German economy from the destruction of World Dennkschrift II to a central position in Europe, presiding over the German Economic Miracle.
He reestablished the German military in and he came to terms with France, which made denkshrift the economic unification denjschrift Western Europe. Konrad Adenauer was born as the third of denkschrigt children of Johann Konrad Adenauer and his wife Helene in Cologne, Rhenish Prussia and his siblings were August, Johannes, Lilli and Elisabeth, who died shortly after birth in c. Inhe completed his Abitur and began studying law and politics at the universities of Freiburg, Munich and Bonn. Inat the age of 20, he was conscripted into the German army and he was a member of several Roman Catholic students associations under the K.
He graduated in and afterwards worked as a lawyer at the court in Cologne and he was strongly interested in the use of medicinal herbs, according to famous French herbalist Maurice Messugue, whom he met and befriended. These were his favorite medicinal plants according to Messugue, though he had knowledge of a wide range of plants.
He agreed with Messugue that plants had to be free of sprays and he told Messugue that he owed his good health to the plants, to nature. Adenauer found relaxation and great enjoyment in the Italian game of bocce, as denoschrift devout Catholic, he joined the Centre Party denkscnrift and was elected to Colognes city council in the same year. Inhe became Vice-Mayor of Cologne, a metropolis with a population ofin From tohe served as Mayor of Cologne, Adenauer headed Cologne during World War I, working closely with the army to maximize the citys role as a rear base of supply and transportation for the Western Front.
He paid special attention to the food supply, enabling the residents to avoid the worst of the severe shortages that beset most German cities during — This situation ended when East Germany was dissolved and its five states joined the ten states of hi,meroder Federal Republic of Germany along with denkschriftt reunified city-state of Berlin.
With the reunification of West and East Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, enlarged now to sixteen states and this period is referred to as the Bonn Republic by historians, alluding to the interwar Weimar Republic and the post-reunification Berlin Republic. Its population grew from roughly 51 million in to denschrift than 63 million inthe city of Bonn was its de facto capital city.
The fourth Allied occupation zone was held by the Soviet Union, as a result, West Germany had a territory about half the size of the interbellum democratic Weimar Republic. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Western and Eastern blocs, Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin.
The Federal Republic of Germany claimed a mandate for all of Germany. It took the line that the GDR was an illegally constituted puppet state, though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not free and denischrift.
It recognised the GDR as a de facto government within a single German nation that in turn was represented de jure by the West German state alone. From onward, East Germany recognised the existence of two German countries de jure, and the West as both de facto and de jure foreign country, the Federal Republic and the GDR agreed that neither denkschrifft them could speak in the name of the other. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office untilhad worked for an alignment with NATO rather than neutrality.
He not only secured a membership in NATO but was also a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union, when the G6 was established inthere was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well. With the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe insymbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in Its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin and they formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 Octoberraising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany.
Bundeswehr — The Bundeswehr is the unified armed forces of Cenkschrift and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, the Bundeswehr is divided into a military part and a civil part with the armed forces administration.
In addition the Bundeswehr has approximately 27, reserve personnel. Also the Dutch 43rd Mechanized Brigade, will be integrated into the 1st Panzer Division of the German army, with the integration starting at the beginning ofand the unit becoming operational at the end of The name Bundeswehr was first proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and Liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel, the Iron Cross is its official emblem.
It is a symbol that has an association with the military of Germany. The Schwarzes Kreuz is derived from the black cross insignia of the medieval Teutonic knights, when the Bundeswehr was established inits founding himmerodsr were based on developing a completely new military force for the defence of West Germany.
In this respect the Bundeswehr did not consider itself to be a successor to either the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic or Hitlers Wehrmacht, neither does it adhere to the traditions of any former German military organization. Today it is performed by a band with 4 fanfare trumpeters and timpani.
The Zapfenstreich is only performed during national celebrations or solemn public commemorations and it can honour distinguished persons present such as the German federal president or provide the conclusion to large military exercises. The pledge is made annually on 20 July, the date on which a group of Wehrmacht officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler inrecruits from the Bundeswehrs Wachbataillon make their vow at the Bendlerblock ddenkschrift Berlin.
This was the headquarters of the resistance but also where the officers were executed following its failure. The goals of the conference included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaty issues. In the five months since the Yalta Conference, a number of changes had taken place which would affect the relationships between the leaders.
Stalin had set up a communist government in Poland and he insisted that his control of Eastern Europe was a defensive measure against possible future attacks and claimed that it was a legitimate sphere of Soviet influence. Secondly, Britain had a new Prime Minister, a denkscnrift election was held in the UK on 5 July, the results of which became known during the conference, with a Labour Party majority, Labour leader Clement Attlee became the new Prime Minister.
During the war and in the name of Allied unity, Roosevelt had brushed off warnings of a potential domination by a Stalin dictatorship in part of Europe, while inexperienced in foreign affairs, Truman had closely followed the allied progress of the war. With the end of the war, the priority of allied unity was replaced with a new challenge, the two leading powers continued to sustain a cordial relationship to the public but suspicions and distrust lingered between them.
As the suspicion grew between the two rising powers, Stalin proposed that Denkschruft will use their advantage and success in order to entices other nations into expanding their U. Truman became much more suspicious of communist moves than Roosevelt had been, Truman and his advisers saw Soviet actions in Eastern Europe as aggressive expansionism which was incompatible with the agreements Stalin had committed to at Yalta the previous February.
However, the Potsdam Conference marks the first and only time Truman would ever dehkschrift Stalin in person, at the himmerodsr of the conference, the three Heads of Government agreed on the following actions.
File: – Wikimedia Commons
All other issues were to be answered by the peace conference to be called as soon as possible. Allied Chiefs of Staff at the Potsdam Conference decided to temporarily partition Vietnam at the 16th parallel for the purposes of operational convenience.
It was agreed that British forces would take the surrender of Japanese forces in Saigon for the half of Indochina.
The Allies issued a statement of aims of their occupation of Germany, Germany and Austria were to be divided respectively into four occupation zones, and similarly each capital, Berlin and Vienna, was to be divided into four zones.
It was agreed that the Nazi war criminals would be put to trial, all German annexations in Europe were to be reversed, including Sudetenland, Alsace-Lorraine, Austria, and the westernmost parts of Poland.
Germanys eastern border was to be shifted westwards to the Oder—Neisse line, the territories east of the new border comprised East Prussia, Silesia, West Prussia, and two thirds of Pomerania. Allied-occupied Germany — The four powers divided Germany into four occupation zones for administrative purposes, into what is collectively known now as Allied-occupied Germany.
The Final German Peace Treaty would result in the westward of Polands borders back to approximately as they were before In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe, United States forces had pushed beyond the boundaries for the future zones of occupation.
The so-called line of contact between Soviet and American forces at the end of hostilities, mostly lying eastward of the July established inner German border was temporary. After two months in which they had areas that had been assigned to the Soviet zone.